# BeginBlock

# Evidence Handling

Tendermint blocks can include Evidence, which indicates that a validator committed malicious behavior. The relevant information is forwarded to the application as ABCI Evidence in abci.RequestBeginBlock so that the validator an be accordingly punished.

# Equivocation

Currently, the evidence module only handles evidence of type Equivocation which is derived from Tendermint's ABCIEvidenceTypeDuplicateVote during BeginBlock.

For some Equivocation submitted in block to be valid, it must satisfy:

Evidence.Timestamp >= block.Timestamp - MaxEvidenceAge

Where Evidence.Timestamp is the timestamp in the block at height Evidence.Height and block.Timestamp is the current block timestamp.

If valid Equivocation evidence is included in a block, the validator's stake is reduced (slashed) by SlashFractionDoubleSign, which is defined by the x/slashing module, of what their stake was when the infraction occurred (rather than when the evidence was discovered). We want to "follow the stake", i.e. the stake which contributed to the infraction should be slashed, even if it has since been redelegated or started unbonding.

In addition, the validator is permanently jailed and tombstoned making it impossible for that validator to ever re-enter the validator set.

The Equivocation evidence is handled as follows:

Copy func (k Keeper) HandleDoubleSign(ctx Context, evidence Equivocation) { consAddr := evidence.GetConsensusAddress() infractionHeight := evidence.GetHeight() // calculate the age of the evidence blockTime := ctx.BlockHeader().Time age := blockTime.Sub(evidence.GetTime()) // reject evidence we cannot handle if _, err := k.slashingKeeper.GetPubkey(ctx, consAddr.Bytes()); err != nil { return } // reject evidence if it is too old if age > k.MaxEvidenceAge(ctx) { return } // reject evidence if the validator is already unbonded validator := k.stakingKeeper.ValidatorByConsAddr(ctx, consAddr) if validator == nil || validator.IsUnbonded() { return } // verify the validator has signing info in order to be slashed and tombstoned if ok := k.slashingKeeper.HasValidatorSigningInfo(ctx, consAddr); !ok { panic(...) } // reject evidence if the validator is already tombstoned if k.slashingKeeper.IsTombstoned(ctx, consAddr) { return } // We need to retrieve the stake distribution which signed the block, so we // subtract ValidatorUpdateDelay from the evidence height. // Note, that this *can* result in a negative "distributionHeight", up to // -ValidatorUpdateDelay, i.e. at the end of the // pre-genesis block (none) = at the beginning of the genesis block. // That's fine since this is just used to filter unbonding delegations & redelegations. distributionHeight := infractionHeight - sdk.ValidatorUpdateDelay // Slash validator. The `power` is the int64 power of the validator as provided // to/by Tendermint. This value is validator.Tokens as sent to Tendermint via // ABCI, and now received as evidence. The fraction is passed in to separately // to slash unbonding and rebonding delegations. k.slashingKeeper.Slash(ctx, consAddr, evidence.GetValidatorPower(), distributionHeight) // Jail the validator if not already jailed. This will begin unbonding the // validator if not already unbonding (tombstoned). if !validator.IsJailed() { k.slashingKeeper.Jail(ctx, consAddr) } k.slashingKeeper.JailUntil(ctx, consAddr, types.DoubleSignJailEndTime) k.slashingKeeper.Tombstone(ctx, consAddr) }

Note, the slashing, jailing, and tombstoning calls are delegated through the x/slashing module which emit informative events and finally delegate calls to the x/staking module. Documentation on slashing and jailing can be found in the x/staking spec