# Keepers

# Pre-requisite Readings

# Motivation

The Cosmos SDK is a framework that makes it easy for developers to build complex decentralised applications from scratch, mainly by composing modules together. As the ecosystem of open source modules for the Cosmos SDK expands, it will become increasingly likely that some of these modules contain vulnerabilities, as a result of the negligence or malice of their developer.

The Cosmos SDK adopts an object-capabilities-based approach to help developers better protect their application from unwanted inter-module interactions, and keepers are at the core of this approach. A keeper can be thought of quite literally as the gatekeeper of a module's store(s). Each store (typically an IAVL Store) defined within a module comes with a storeKey, which grants unlimited access to it. The module's keeper holds this storeKey (which should otherwise remain unexposed), and defines methods for reading and writing to the store(s).

The core idea behind the object-capabilities approach is to only reveal what is necessary to get the work done. In practice, this means that instead of handling permissions of modules through access-control lists, module keepers are passed a reference to the specific instance of the other modules' keepers that they need to access (this is done in the application's constructor function). As a consequence, a module can only interact with the subset of state defined in another module via the methods exposed by the instance of the other module's keeper. This is a great way for developers to control the interactions that their own module can have with modules developed by external developers.

# Type Definition

keepers are generally implemented in a internal/keeper/keeper.go file located in the module's folder. By convention, the type keeper of a module is simply named Keeper and usually follows the following structure:

Copy type Keeper struct { // External keepers, if any // Store key(s) // codec }

For example, here is the [type definition of the keeper from the nameservice tutorial:

Copy // Keeper maintains the link to storage and exposes getter/setter methods for the various parts of the state machine type Keeper struct { CoinKeeper bank.Keeper storeKey sdk.StoreKey // Unexposed key to access store from sdk.Context cdc *codec.Codec // The wire codec for binary encoding/decoding. }

Let us go through the different parameters:

  • An expected keeper is a keeper external to a module that is required by the internal keeper of said module. External keepers are listed in the internal keeper's type definition as interfaces. These interfaces are themselves defined in a internal/types/expected_keepers.go file within the module's folder. In this context, interfaces are used to reduce the number of dependencies, as well as to facilitate the maintenance of the module itself.
  • storeKeys grant access to the store(s) of the multistore managed by the module. They should always remain unexposed to external modules.
  • A codec cdc, used to marshall and unmarshall struct to/from []byte.

Of course, it is possible to define different types of internal keepers for the same module (e.g. a read-only keeper). Each type of keeper comes with its own constructor function, which is called from the application's constructor function. This is where keepers are instantiated, and where developers make sure to pass correct instances of modules' keepers to other modules that require it.

# Implementing Methods

Keepers primarily expose getter and setter methods for the store(s) managed by their module. These methods should remain as simple as possible and strictly be limited to getting or setting the requested value, as validity checks should have already been performed via the ValidateBasic() method of the message and the handler when keepers' methods are called.

Typically, a getter method will present with the following signature

Copy func (k Keeper) Get(ctx sdk.Context, key string) returnType

and go through the following steps:

  1. Retrieve the appropriate store from the ctx using the storeKey. This is done through the KVStore(storeKey sdk.StoreKey method of the ctx.
  2. If it exists, get the []byte value stored at location []byte(key) using the Get(key []byte) method of the store.
  3. Unmarshall the retrieved value from []byte to returnType using the codec cdc. Return the value.

Similarly, a setter method will present with the following signature

Copy func (k Keeper) Set(ctx sdk.Context, key string, value valueType)

and go through the following steps:

  1. Retrieve the appropriate store from the ctx using the storeKey. This is done through the KVStore(storeKey sdk.StoreKey method of the ctx.
  2. Marhsall value to []byte using the codec cdc.
  3. Set the encoded value in the store at location key using the Set(key []byte, value []byte) method of the store.

For more, see an example of keeper's methods implementation from the nameservice tutorial.

# Next

Learn about invariants