# Keepers

Keepers refer to a Cosmos SDK abstraction whose role is to manage access to the subset of the state defined by various modules. Keepers are module-specific, i.e. the subset of state defined by a module can only be accessed by a keeper defined in said module. If a module needs to access the subset of state defined by another module, a reference to the second module's internal keeper needs to be passed to the first one. This is done in app.go during the instantiation of module keepers.

# Pre-requisite Readings

# Motivation

The Cosmos SDK is a framework that makes it easy for developers to build complex decentralised applications from scratch, mainly by composing modules together. As the ecosystem of open source modules for the Cosmos SDK expands, it will become increasingly likely that some of these modules contain vulnerabilities, as a result of the negligence or malice of their developer.

The Cosmos SDK adopts an object-capabilities-based approach to help developers better protect their application from unwanted inter-module interactions, and keepers are at the core of this approach. A keeper can be thought of quite literally as the gatekeeper of a module's store(s). Each store (typically an IAVL Store) defined within a module comes with a storeKey, which grants unlimited access to it. The module's keeper holds this storeKey (which should otherwise remain unexposed), and defines methods for reading and writing to the store(s).

The core idea behind the object-capabilities approach is to only reveal what is necessary to get the work done. In practice, this means that instead of handling permissions of modules through access-control lists, module keepers are passed a reference to the specific instance of the other modules' keepers that they need to access (this is done in the application's constructor function). As a consequence, a module can only interact with the subset of state defined in another module via the methods exposed by the instance of the other module's keeper. This is a great way for developers to control the interactions that their own module can have with modules developed by external developers.

# Type Definition

keepers are generally implemented in a /keeper/keeper.go file located in the module's folder. By convention, the type keeper of a module is simply named Keeper and usually follows the following structure:

Copy type Keeper struct { // External keepers, if any // Store key(s) // codec }

For example, here is the type definition of the keeper from the staking module:

Copy // keeper of the staking store type Keeper struct { storeKey sdk.StoreKey cdc codec.BinaryMarshaler authKeeper types.AccountKeeper bankKeeper types.BankKeeper hooks types.StakingHooks paramstore paramtypes.Subspace validatorCache map[string]cachedValidator validatorCacheList *list.List }

Let us go through the different parameters:

  • An expected keeper is a keeper external to a module that is required by the internal keeper of said module. External keepers are listed in the internal keeper's type definition as interfaces. These interfaces are themselves defined in a types/expected_keepers.go file within the module's folder. In this context, interfaces are used to reduce the number of dependencies, as well as to facilitate the maintenance of the module itself.
  • storeKeys grant access to the store(s) of the multistore managed by the module. They should always remain unexposed to external modules.
  • A codec cdc, used to marshall and unmarshall struct to/from []byte, that can be any of codec.BinaryMarshaler,codec.JSONMarshaler or codec.Marshaler based on your requirements. It can be either a proto or amino codec as long as they implement these interfaces.

Of course, it is possible to define different types of internal keepers for the same module (e.g. a read-only keeper). Each type of keeper comes with its own constructor function, which is called from the application's constructor function. This is where keepers are instantiated, and where developers make sure to pass correct instances of modules' keepers to other modules that require it.

# Implementing Methods

Keepers primarily expose getter and setter methods for the store(s) managed by their module. These methods should remain as simple as possible and strictly be limited to getting or setting the requested value, as validity checks should have already been performed via the ValidateBasic() method of the message and the handler when keepers' methods are called.

Typically, a getter method will present with the following signature

Copy func (k Keeper) Get(ctx sdk.Context, key string) returnType

and go through the following steps:

  1. Retrieve the appropriate store from the ctx using the storeKey. This is done through the KVStore(storeKey sdk.StoreKey) method of the ctx. Then it's prefered to use the prefix.Store to access only the desired limited subset of the store for convenience and safety.
  2. If it exists, get the []byte value stored at location []byte(key) using the Get(key []byte) method of the store.
  3. Unmarshall the retrieved value from []byte to returnType using the codec cdc. Return the value.

Similarly, a setter method will present with the following signature

Copy func (k Keeper) Set(ctx sdk.Context, key string, value valueType)

and go through the following steps:

  1. Retrieve the appropriate store from the ctx using the storeKey. This is done through the KVStore(storeKey sdk.StoreKey) method of the ctx. Then it's prefered to use the prefix.Store to access only the desired limited subset of the store for convenience and safety.
  2. Marshal value to []byte using the codec cdc.
  3. Set the encoded value in the store at location key using the Set(key []byte, value []byte) method of the store.

For more, see an example of keeper's methods implementation from the staking module.

The module KVStore also provides an Iterator() method which returns an Iterator object to iterate over a domain of keys.

This is an example from the auth module to iterate accounts:

Copy // IterateAccounts iterates over all the stored accounts and performs a callback function func (ak AccountKeeper) IterateAccounts(ctx sdk.Context, cb func(account types.AccountI) (stop bool)) { store := ctx.KVStore(ak.key) iterator := sdk.KVStorePrefixIterator(store, types.AddressStoreKeyPrefix) defer iterator.Close() for ; iterator.Valid(); iterator.Next() { account := ak.decodeAccount(iterator.Value()) if cb(account) { break } } }

# Next

Learn about invariants