Skip to main content
Version: Next

x/bank

Abstract

This document specifies the bank module of the Cosmos SDK.

The bank module is responsible for handling multi-asset coin transfers between accounts and tracking special-case pseudo-transfers which must work differently with particular kinds of accounts (notably delegating/undelegating for vesting accounts). It exposes several interfaces with varying capabilities for secure interaction with other modules which must alter user balances.

In addition, the bank module tracks and provides query support for the total supply of all assets used in the application.

This module is used in the Cosmos Hub.

Contents

Supply

The supply functionality:

  • passively tracks the total supply of coins within a chain,
  • provides a pattern for modules to hold/interact with Coins, and
  • introduces the invariant check to verify a chain's total supply.

Total Supply

The total Supply of the network is equal to the sum of all coins from the account. The total supply is updated every time a Coin is minted (eg: as part of the inflation mechanism) or burned (eg: due to slashing or if a governance proposal is vetoed).

Module Accounts

The supply functionality introduces a new type of auth.Account which can be used by modules to allocate tokens and in special cases mint or burn tokens. At a base level these module accounts are capable of sending/receiving tokens to and from auth.Accounts and other module accounts. This design replaces previous alternative designs where, to hold tokens, modules would burn the incoming tokens from the sender account, and then track those tokens internally. Later, in order to send tokens, the module would need to effectively mint tokens within a destination account. The new design removes duplicate logic between modules to perform this accounting.

The ModuleAccount interface is defined as follows:

type ModuleAccount interface {
auth.Account // same methods as the Account interface

GetName() string // name of the module; used to obtain the address
GetPermissions() []string // permissions of module account
HasPermission(string) bool
}

WARNING! Any module or message handler that allows either direct or indirect sending of funds must explicitly guarantee those funds cannot be sent to module accounts (unless allowed).

The supply Keeper also introduces new wrapper functions for the auth Keeper and the bank Keeper that are related to ModuleAccounts in order to be able to:

  • Get and set ModuleAccounts by providing the Name.
  • Send coins from and to other ModuleAccounts or standard Accounts (BaseAccount or VestingAccount) by passing only the Name.
  • Mint or Burn coins for a ModuleAccount (restricted to its permissions).

Permissions

Each ModuleAccount has a different set of permissions that provide different object capabilities to perform certain actions. Permissions need to be registered upon the creation of the supply Keeper so that every time a ModuleAccount calls the allowed functions, the Keeper can lookup the permissions to that specific account and perform or not perform the action.

The available permissions are:

  • Minter: allows for a module to mint a specific amount of coins.
  • Burner: allows for a module to burn a specific amount of coins.
  • Staking: allows for a module to delegate and undelegate a specific amount of coins.

State

The x/bank module keeps state of the following primary objects:

  1. Account balances
  2. Denomination metadata
  3. The total supply of all balances
  4. Information on which denominations are allowed to be sent.

In addition, the x/bank module keeps the following indexes to manage the aforementioned state:

  • Supply Index: 0x0 | byte(denom) -> byte(amount)
  • Denom Metadata Index: 0x1 | byte(denom) -> ProtocolBuffer(Metadata)
  • Balances Index: 0x2 | byte(address length) | []byte(address) | []byte(balance.Denom) -> ProtocolBuffer(balance)
  • Reverse Denomination to Address Index: 0x03 | byte(denom) | 0x00 | []byte(address) -> 0

Params

The bank module stores it's params in state with the prefix of 0x05, it can be updated with governance or the address with authority.

  • Params: 0x05 | ProtocolBuffer(Params)
proto/cosmos/bank/v1beta1/bank.proto
loading...

Keepers

The bank module provides these exported keeper interfaces that can be passed to other modules that read or update account balances. Modules should use the least-permissive interface that provides the functionality they require.

Best practices dictate careful review of bank module code to ensure that permissions are limited in the way that you expect.

Denied Addresses

The x/bank module accepts a map of addresses that are considered blocklisted from directly and explicitly receiving funds through means such as MsgSend and MsgMultiSend and direct API calls like SendCoinsFromModuleToAccount.

Typically, these addresses are module accounts. If these addresses receive funds outside the expected rules of the state machine, invariants are likely to be broken and could result in a halted network.

By providing the x/bank module with a blocklisted set of addresses, an error occurs for the operation if a user or client attempts to directly or indirectly send funds to a blocklisted account, for example, by using IBC.

Common Types

Input

An input of a multiparty transfer

// Input models transaction input.
message Input {
string address = 1;
repeated cosmos.base.v1beta1.Coin coins = 2;
}

Output

An output of a multiparty transfer.

// Output models transaction outputs.
message Output {
string address = 1;
repeated cosmos.base.v1beta1.Coin coins = 2;
}

BaseKeeper

The base keeper provides full-permission access: the ability to arbitrary modify any account's balance and mint or burn coins.

Restricted permission to mint per module could be achieved by using baseKeeper with WithMintCoinsRestriction to give specific restrictions to mint (e.g. only minting certain denom).

// Keeper defines a module interface that facilitates the transfer of coins
// between accounts.
type Keeper interface {
SendKeeper
WithMintCoinsRestriction(MintingRestrictionFn) BaseKeeper

InitGenesis(sdk.Context, *types.GenesisState)
ExportGenesis(sdk.Context) *types.GenesisState

GetSupply(ctx sdk.Context, denom string) sdk.Coin
HasSupply(ctx sdk.Context, denom string) bool
GetPaginatedTotalSupply(ctx sdk.Context, pagination *query.PageRequest) (sdk.Coins, *query.PageResponse, error)
IterateTotalSupply(ctx sdk.Context, cb func(sdk.Coin) bool)
GetDenomMetaData(ctx sdk.Context, denom string) (types.Metadata, bool)
HasDenomMetaData(ctx sdk.Context, denom string) bool
SetDenomMetaData(ctx sdk.Context, denomMetaData types.Metadata)
IterateAllDenomMetaData(ctx sdk.Context, cb func(types.Metadata) bool)

SendCoinsFromModuleToAccount(ctx sdk.Context, senderModule string, recipientAddr sdk.AccAddress, amt sdk.Coins) error
SendCoinsFromModuleToModule(ctx sdk.Context, senderModule, recipientModule string, amt sdk.Coins) error
SendCoinsFromAccountToModule(ctx sdk.Context, senderAddr sdk.AccAddress, recipientModule string, amt sdk.Coins) error
DelegateCoinsFromAccountToModule(ctx sdk.Context, senderAddr sdk.AccAddress, recipientModule string, amt sdk.Coins) error
UndelegateCoinsFromModuleToAccount(ctx sdk.Context, senderModule string, recipientAddr sdk.AccAddress, amt sdk.Coins) error
MintCoins(ctx sdk.Context, moduleName string, amt sdk.Coins) error
BurnCoins(ctx sdk.Context, moduleName string, amt sdk.Coins) error

DelegateCoins(ctx sdk.Context, delegatorAddr, moduleAccAddr sdk.AccAddress, amt sdk.Coins) error
UndelegateCoins(ctx sdk.Context, moduleAccAddr, delegatorAddr sdk.AccAddress, amt sdk.Coins) error

// GetAuthority gets the address capable of executing governance proposal messages. Usually the gov module account.
GetAuthority() string

types.QueryServer
}

SendKeeper

The send keeper provides access to account balances and the ability to transfer coins between accounts. The send keeper does not alter the total supply (mint or burn coins).

// SendKeeper defines a module interface that facilitates the transfer of coins
// between accounts without the possibility of creating coins.
type SendKeeper interface {
ViewKeeper

InputOutputCoins(ctx sdk.Context, inputs []types.Input, outputs []types.Output) error
SendCoins(ctx sdk.Context, fromAddr sdk.AccAddress, toAddr sdk.AccAddress, amt sdk.Coins) error

GetParams(ctx sdk.Context) types.Params
SetParams(ctx sdk.Context, params types.Params) error

IsSendEnabledDenom(ctx sdk.Context, denom string) bool
SetSendEnabled(ctx sdk.Context, denom string, value bool)
SetAllSendEnabled(ctx sdk.Context, sendEnableds []*types.SendEnabled)
DeleteSendEnabled(ctx sdk.Context, denom string)
IterateSendEnabledEntries(ctx sdk.Context, cb func(denom string, sendEnabled bool) (stop bool))
GetAllSendEnabledEntries(ctx sdk.Context) []types.SendEnabled

IsSendEnabledCoin(ctx sdk.Context, coin sdk.Coin) bool
IsSendEnabledCoins(ctx sdk.Context, coins ...sdk.Coin) error

BlockedAddr(addr sdk.AccAddress) bool
}

ViewKeeper

The view keeper provides read-only access to account balances. The view keeper does not have balance alteration functionality. All balance lookups are O(1).

// ViewKeeper defines a module interface that facilitates read only access to
// account balances.
type ViewKeeper interface {
ValidateBalance(ctx sdk.Context, addr sdk.AccAddress) error
HasBalance(ctx sdk.Context, addr sdk.AccAddress, amt sdk.Coin) bool

GetAllBalances(ctx sdk.Context, addr sdk.AccAddress) sdk.Coins
GetAccountsBalances(ctx sdk.Context) []types.Balance
GetBalance(ctx sdk.Context, addr sdk.AccAddress, denom string) sdk.Coin
LockedCoins(ctx sdk.Context, addr sdk.AccAddress) sdk.Coins
SpendableCoins(ctx sdk.Context, addr sdk.AccAddress) sdk.Coins
SpendableCoin(ctx sdk.Context, addr sdk.AccAddress, denom string) sdk.Coin

IterateAccountBalances(ctx sdk.Context, addr sdk.AccAddress, cb func(coin sdk.Coin) (stop bool))
IterateAllBalances(ctx sdk.Context, cb func(address sdk.AccAddress, coin sdk.Coin) (stop bool))
}

Messages

MsgSend

Send coins from one address to another.

proto/cosmos/bank/v1beta1/tx.proto
loading...

The message will fail under the following conditions:

  • The coins do not have sending enabled
  • The to address is restricted

MsgMultiSend

Send coins from and to a series of different address. If any of the receiving addresses do not correspond to an existing account, a new account is created.

proto/cosmos/bank/v1beta1/tx.proto
loading...

The message will fail under the following conditions:

  • Any of the coins do not have sending enabled
  • Any of the to addresses are restricted
  • Any of the coins are locked
  • The inputs and outputs do not correctly correspond to one another

MsgUpdateParams

The bank module params can be updated through MsgUpdateParams, which can be done using governance proposal. The signer will always be the gov module account address.

proto/cosmos/bank/v1beta1/tx.proto
loading...

The message handling can fail if:

  • signer is not the gov module account address.

MsgSetSendEnabled

Used with the x/gov module to set create/edit SendEnabled entries.

proto/cosmos/bank/v1beta1/tx.proto
loading...

The message will fail under the following conditions:

  • The authority is not a bech32 address.
  • The authority is not x/gov module's address.
  • There are multiple SendEnabled entries with the same Denom.
  • One or more SendEnabled entries has an invalid Denom.

Events

The bank module emits the following events:

Message Events

MsgSend

TypeAttribute KeyAttribute Value
transferrecipient{recipientAddress}
transferamount{amount}
messagemodulebank
messageactionsend
messagesender{senderAddress}

MsgMultiSend

TypeAttribute KeyAttribute Value
transferrecipient{recipientAddress}
transferamount{amount}
messagemodulebank
messageactionmultisend
messagesender{senderAddress}

Keeper Events

In addition to message events, the bank keeper will produce events when the following methods are called (or any method which ends up calling them)

MintCoins

{
"type": "coinbase",
"attributes": [
{
"key": "minter",
"value": "{{sdk.AccAddress of the module minting coins}}",
"index": true
},
{
"key": "amount",
"value": "{{sdk.Coins being minted}}",
"index": true
}
]
}
{
"type": "coin_received",
"attributes": [
{
"key": "receiver",
"value": "{{sdk.AccAddress of the module minting coins}}",
"index": true
},
{
"key": "amount",
"value": "{{sdk.Coins being received}}",
"index": true
}
]
}

BurnCoins

{
"type": "burn",
"attributes": [
{
"key": "burner",
"value": "{{sdk.AccAddress of the module burning coins}}",
"index": true
},
{
"key": "amount",
"value": "{{sdk.Coins being burned}}",
"index": true
}
]
}
{
"type": "coin_spent",
"attributes": [
{
"key": "spender",
"value": "{{sdk.AccAddress of the module burning coins}}",
"index": true
},
{
"key": "amount",
"value": "{{sdk.Coins being burned}}",
"index": true
}
]
}

addCoins

{
"type": "coin_received",
"attributes": [
{
"key": "receiver",
"value": "{{sdk.AccAddress of the address beneficiary of the coins}}",
"index": true
},
{
"key": "amount",
"value": "{{sdk.Coins being received}}",
"index": true
}
]
}

subUnlockedCoins/DelegateCoins

{
"type": "coin_spent",
"attributes": [
{
"key": "spender",
"value": "{{sdk.AccAddress of the address which is spending coins}}",
"index": true
},
{
"key": "amount",
"value": "{{sdk.Coins being spent}}",
"index": true
}
]
}

Parameters

The bank module contains the following parameters

SendEnabled

The SendEnabled parameter is now deprecated and not to be use. It is replaced with state store records.

DefaultSendEnabled

The default send enabled value controls send transfer capability for all coin denominations unless specifically included in the array of SendEnabled parameters.

Client

CLI

A user can query and interact with the bank module using the CLI.

Query

The query commands allow users to query bank state.

simd query bank --help
balances

The balances command allows users to query account balances by address.

simd query bank balances [address] [flags]

Example:

simd query bank balances cosmos1..

Example Output:

balances:
- amount: "1000000000"
denom: stake
pagination:
next_key: null
total: "0"
denom-metadata

The denom-metadata command allows users to query metadata for coin denominations. A user can query metadata for a single denomination using the --denom flag or all denominations without it.

simd query bank denom-metadata [flags]

Example:

simd query bank denom-metadata --denom stake

Example Output:

metadata:
base: stake
denom_units:
- aliases:
- STAKE
denom: stake
description: native staking token of simulation app
display: stake
name: SimApp Token
symbol: STK
total

The total command allows users to query the total supply of coins. A user can query the total supply for a single coin using the --denom flag or all coins without it.

simd query bank total [flags]

Example:

simd query bank total --denom stake

Example Output:

amount: "10000000000"
denom: stake
send-enabled

The send-enabled command allows users to query for all or some SendEnabled entries.

simd query bank send-enabled [denom1 ...] [flags]

Example:

simd query bank send-enabled

Example output:

send_enabled:
- denom: foocoin
enabled: true
- denom: barcoin
pagination:
next-key: null
total: 2

Transactions

The tx commands allow users to interact with the bank module.

simd tx bank --help
send

The send command allows users to send funds from one account to another.

simd tx bank send [from_key_or_address] [to_address] [amount] [flags]

Example:

simd tx bank send cosmos1.. cosmos1.. 100stake

gRPC

A user can query the bank module using gRPC endpoints.

Balance

The Balance endpoint allows users to query account balance by address for a given denomination.

cosmos.bank.v1beta1.Query/Balance

Example:

grpcurl -plaintext \
-d '{"address":"cosmos1..","denom":"stake"}' \
localhost:9090 \
cosmos.bank.v1beta1.Query/Balance

Example Output:

{
"balance": {
"denom": "stake",
"amount": "1000000000"
}
}

AllBalances

The AllBalances endpoint allows users to query account balance by address for all denominations.

cosmos.bank.v1beta1.Query/AllBalances

Example:

grpcurl -plaintext \
-d '{"address":"cosmos1.."}' \
localhost:9090 \
cosmos.bank.v1beta1.Query/AllBalances

Example Output:

{
"balances": [
{
"denom": "stake",
"amount": "1000000000"
}
],
"pagination": {
"total": "1"
}
}

DenomMetadata

The DenomMetadata endpoint allows users to query metadata for a single coin denomination.

cosmos.bank.v1beta1.Query/DenomMetadata

Example:

grpcurl -plaintext \
-d '{"denom":"stake"}' \
localhost:9090 \
cosmos.bank.v1beta1.Query/DenomMetadata

Example Output:

{
"metadata": {
"description": "native staking token of simulation app",
"denomUnits": [
{
"denom": "stake",
"aliases": [
"STAKE"
]
}
],
"base": "stake",
"display": "stake",
"name": "SimApp Token",
"symbol": "STK"
}
}

DenomsMetadata

The DenomsMetadata endpoint allows users to query metadata for all coin denominations.

cosmos.bank.v1beta1.Query/DenomsMetadata

Example:

grpcurl -plaintext \
localhost:9090 \
cosmos.bank.v1beta1.Query/DenomsMetadata

Example Output:

{
"metadatas": [
{
"description": "native staking token of simulation app",
"denomUnits": [
{
"denom": "stake",
"aliases": [
"STAKE"
]
}
],
"base": "stake",
"display": "stake",
"name": "SimApp Token",
"symbol": "STK"
}
],
"pagination": {
"total": "1"
}
}

DenomOwners

The DenomOwners endpoint allows users to query metadata for a single coin denomination.

cosmos.bank.v1beta1.Query/DenomOwners

Example:

grpcurl -plaintext \
-d '{"denom":"stake"}' \
localhost:9090 \
cosmos.bank.v1beta1.Query/DenomOwners

Example Output:

{
"denomOwners": [
{
"address": "cosmos1..",
"balance": {
"denom": "stake",
"amount": "5000000000"
}
},
{
"address": "cosmos1..",
"balance": {
"denom": "stake",
"amount": "5000000000"
}
},
],
"pagination": {
"total": "2"
}
}

TotalSupply

The TotalSupply endpoint allows users to query the total supply of all coins.

cosmos.bank.v1beta1.Query/TotalSupply

Example:

grpcurl -plaintext \
localhost:9090 \
cosmos.bank.v1beta1.Query/TotalSupply

Example Output:

{
"supply": [
{
"denom": "stake",
"amount": "10000000000"
}
],
"pagination": {
"total": "1"
}
}

SupplyOf

The SupplyOf endpoint allows users to query the total supply of a single coin.

cosmos.bank.v1beta1.Query/SupplyOf

Example:

grpcurl -plaintext \
-d '{"denom":"stake"}' \
localhost:9090 \
cosmos.bank.v1beta1.Query/SupplyOf

Example Output:

{
"amount": {
"denom": "stake",
"amount": "10000000000"
}
}

Params

The Params endpoint allows users to query the parameters of the bank module.

cosmos.bank.v1beta1.Query/Params

Example:

grpcurl -plaintext \
localhost:9090 \
cosmos.bank.v1beta1.Query/Params

Example Output:

{
"params": {
"defaultSendEnabled": true
}
}

SendEnabled

The SendEnabled enpoints allows users to query the SendEnabled entries of the bank module.

Any denominations NOT returned, use the Params.DefaultSendEnabled value.

cosmos.bank.v1beta1.Query/SendEnabled

Example:

grpcurl -plaintext \
localhost:9090 \
cosmos.bank.v1beta1.Query/SendEnabled

Example Output:

{
"send_enabled": [
{
"denom": "foocoin",
"enabled": true
},
{
"denom": "barcoin"
}
],
"pagination": {
"next-key": null,
"total": 2
}
}