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Version: v0.47

Upgrading Cosmos SDK

This guide provides instructions for upgrading to specific versions of Cosmos SDK. Note, always read the SimApp section for more information on application wiring updates.


Migration to CometBFT (Part 2)

The Cosmos SDK has migrated in its previous versions, to CometBFT. Some functions have been renamed to reflect the naming change.

Following an exhaustive list:

  • client.TendermintRPC -> client.CometRPC
  • clitestutil.MockTendermintRPC -> clitestutil.MockCometRPC
  • clitestutilgenutil.CreateDefaultTendermintConfig -> clitestutilgenutil.CreateDefaultCometConfig
  • Package client/grpc/tmservice -> client/grpc/cmtservice

Additionally, the commands and flags mentioning tendermint have been renamed to comet. However, these commands and flags is still supported for backward compatibility.

For backward compatibility, the **/tendermint/** gRPC services are still supported.

Additionally, the SDK is starting its abstraction from CometBFT Go types thorought the codebase:

  • The usage of CometBFT have been replaced to use the Cosmos SDK logger interface (
  • The usage of have been replaced by []byte.


A new tool have been created for migrating configuration of the SDK. Use the following command to migrate your configuration:

simd config migrate v0.48

More information about confix.


The log section of abci.TxResult is not populated in the case of successful msg(s) execution. Instead a new attribute is added to all messages indicating the msg_index which identifies which events and attributes relate the same transaction


gRPC-Web is now listening to the same address as the gRPC Gateway API server (default: localhost:1317). The possibility to listen to a different address has been removed, as well as its settings. Use confix to clean-up your app.toml. A nginx (or alike) reverse-proxy can be set to keep the previous behavior.

Database Support

ClevelDB, BoltDB and BadgerDB are not supported anymore. To migrate from a unsupported database to a supported database please use the database migration tool.


The SDK is in the process of removing all gogoproto annotations.


The gogoproto.goproto_stringer = false annotation has been removed from most proto files. This means that the String() method is being generated for types that previously had this annotation. The generated String() method uses proto.CompactTextString for stringifying structs. Verify the usage of the modified String() methods and double-check that they are not used in state-machine code.


Module Assertions

Previously, all modules were required to be set in OrderBeginBlockers, OrderEndBlockers and OrderInitGenesis / OrderExportGenesis in app.go / app_config.go. This is no longer the case, the assertion has been loosened to only require modules implementing, respectively, the module.BeginBlockAppModule, module.EndBlockAppModule and module.HasGenesis interfaces.

Modules Keepers

The following modules NewKeeper function now take a KVStoreService instead of a StoreKey:

  • x/auth
  • x/authz
  • x/bank
  • x/consensus
  • x/distribution
  • x/feegrant
  • x/nft

User manually wiring their chain need to use the runtime.NewKVStoreService method to create a KVStoreService from a StoreKey:

app.ConsensusParamsKeeper = consensusparamkeeper.NewKeeper(
- keys[consensusparamtypes.StoreKey]
+ runtime.NewKVStoreService(keys[consensusparamtypes.StoreKey]),

The following modules' Keeper methods now take in a context.Context instead of sdk.Context. Any module that has an interfaces for them (like "expected keepers") will need to update and re-generate mocks if needed:

  • x/authz
  • x/bank
  • x/distribution

Users using depinject do not need any changes, this is automatically done for them.


The following modules NewKeeper function now take a log.Logger:

  • x/bank

depinject users must now supply the logger through the main depinject.Supply function instead of passing it to appBuilder.Build.

appConfig = depinject.Configs(
// supply the application options
+ logger,
- app.App = appBuilder.Build(logger, db, traceStore, baseAppOptions...)
+ app.App = appBuilder.Build(db, traceStore, baseAppOptions...)

User manually wiring their chain need to add the logger argument when creating the keeper.

Module Basics

Previously, the ModuleBasics was a global variable that was used to register all modules's AppModuleBasic implementation. The global variable has been removed and the basic module manager can be now created from the module manager.

This is automatically done for depinject users, however for supplying different app module implementation, pass them via depinject.Supply in the main AppConfig (app_config.go):

// supply custom module basics
genutiltypes.ModuleName: genutil.NewAppModuleBasic(genutiltypes.DefaultMessageValidator),
govtypes.ModuleName: gov.NewAppModuleBasic(

Users manually wiring their chain need to use the new module.NewBasicManagerFromManager function, after the module manager creation, and pass a map[string]module.AppModuleBasic as argument for optionally overridding some module's AppModuleBasic.



References to types/store.go which contained aliases for store types have been remapped to point to appropriate store/types, hence the types/store.go file is no longer needed and has been removed.

Extract Store to a standalone module

The store module is extracted to have a separate go.mod file which allows it be a standalone module. All the store imports are now renamed to use instead of across the SDK.


The return type of the interface method TxConfig.SignModeHandler() has been changed from x/auth/signing.SignModeHandler to x/tx/signing.HandlerMap. This change is transparent to most users as the TxConfig interface is typically implemented by private x/auth/tx.config struct (as returned by auth.NewTxConfig) which has been updated to return the new type. If users have implemented their own TxConfig interface, they will need to update their implementation to return the new type.



RFC 001 has defined a simplification of the message validation process for modules. The sdk.Msg interface has been updated to not require the implementation of the ValidateBasic method. It is now recommended to validate message directly in the message server. When the validation is performed in the message server, the ValidateBasic method on a message is no longer required and can be removed.


For ante handler construction via ante.NewAnteHandler, the field ante.HandlerOptions.SignModeHandler has been updated to x/tx/signing/HandlerMap from x/auth/signing/SignModeHandler. Callers typically fetch this value from client.TxConfig.SignModeHandler() (which is also changed) so this change should be transparent to most users.


Capability was moved to IBC-GO. IBC V8 will contain the necessary changes to incorporate the new module location


Expedited Proposals

The gov v1 module has been updated to support the ability to expedite governance proposals. When a proposal is expedited, the voting period will be shortened to ExpeditedVotingPeriod parameter. An expedited proposal must have an higher voting threshold than a classic proposal, that threshold is defined with the ExpeditedThreshold parameter.

Cancelling Proposals

The gov module has been updated to support the ability to cancel governance proposals. When a proposal is canceled, all the deposits of the proposal are either burnt or sent to ProposalCancelDest address. The deposits burn rate will be determined by a new parameter called ProposalCancelRatio parameter.

    1. deposits * proposal_cancel_ratio will be burned or sent to `ProposalCancelDest` address , if `ProposalCancelDest` is empty then deposits will be burned.
2. deposits * (1 - proposal_cancel_ratio) will be sent to depositors.

By default, the new ProposalCancelRatio parameter is set to 0.5 during migration and ProposalCancelDest is set to empty string (i.e. burnt).


Extract evidence to a standalone module

The x/evidence module is extracted to have a separate go.mod file which allows it be a standalone module. All the evidence imports are now renamed to use instead of across the SDK.


Extract nft to a standalone module

The x/nft module is extracted to have a separate go.mod file which allows it to be a standalone module.


Extract feegrant to a standalone module

The x/feegrant module is extracted to have a separate go.mod file which allows it to be a standalone module. All the feegrant imports are now renamed to use instead of across the SDK.


Extract upgrade to a standalone module

The x/upgrade module is extracted to have a separate go.mod file which allows it to be a standalone module. All the upgrade imports are now renamed to use instead of across the SDK.


Migration to CometBFT (Part 1)

The Cosmos SDK has migrated to CometBFT, as its default consensus engine. CometBFT is an implementation of the Tendermint consensus algorithm, and the successor of Tendermint Core. Due to the import changes, this is a breaking change. Chains need to remove entirely their imports of Tendermint Core in their codebase, from direct and indirects imports in their go.mod.

  • Replace by
  • Replace by
  • Verify is not an indirect or direct dependency
  • Run make proto-gen

Other than that, the migration should be seamless. On the SDK side, clean-up of variables, functions to reflect the new name will only happen from v0.48 (part 2).

Note: It is possible that these steps must first be performed by your dependencies before you can perform them on your own codebase.


Remove RandomizedParams from AppModuleSimulation interface. Previously, it used to generate random parameter changes during simulations, however, it does so through ParamChangeProposal which is now legacy. Since all modules were migrated, we can now safely remove this from AppModuleSimulation interface.

Moreover, to support the MsgUpdateParams governance proposals for each modules, AppModuleSimulation now defines a AppModule.ProposalMsgs method in addition to AppModule.ProposalContents. That method defines the messages that can be used to submit a proposal and that should be tested in simulation.

When a module has no proposal messages or proposal content to be tested by simulation, the AppModule.ProposalMsgs and AppModule.ProposalContents methods can be deleted.


A new gRPC service, proto/cosmos/base/node/v1beta1/query.proto, has been introduced which exposes various operator configuration. App developers should be sure to register the service with the gRPC-gateway service via nodeservice.RegisterGRPCGatewayRoutes in their application construction, which is typically found in RegisterAPIRoutes.

AppModule Interface

Support for the AppModule Querier, Route and LegacyQuerier methods has been entirely removed from the AppModule interface. This removes and fully deprecates all legacy queriers. All modules no longer support the REST API previously known as the LCD, and the sdk.Msg#Route method won't be used anymore.

Most other existing AppModule methods have been moved to extension interfaces in preparation for the migration to the API in the next release. Most AppModule implementations should not be broken by this change.


The simapp package should not be imported in your own app. Instead, you should import the runtime.AppI interface, that defines an App, and use the simtestutil package for application testing.

App Wiring

SimApp's app_v2.go is using App Wiring, the dependency injection framework of the Cosmos SDK. This means that modules are injected directly into SimApp thanks to a configuration file. The previous behavior, without the dependency injection framework, is still present in app.go and is not going anywhere.

If you are using a app.go without dependency injection, add the following lines to your app.go in order to provide newer gRPC services:

autocliv1.RegisterQueryServer(app.GRPCQueryRouter(), runtimeservices.NewAutoCLIQueryService(app.ModuleManager.Modules))

reflectionSvc, err := runtimeservices.NewReflectionService()
if err != nil {
reflectionv1.RegisterReflectionServiceServer(app.GRPCQueryRouter(), reflectionSvc)


The constructor, NewSimApp has been simplified:

  • NewSimApp does not take encoding parameters (encodingConfig) as input, instead the encoding parameters are injected (when using app wiring), or directly created in the constructor. Instead, we can instantiate SimApp for getting the encoding configuration.
  • NewSimApp now uses AppOptions for getting the home path (homePath) and the invariant checks period (invCheckPeriod). These were unnecessary given as arguments as they were already present in the AppOptions.


simapp.MakeTestEncodingConfig() was deprecated and has been removed. Instead you can use the TestEncodingConfig from the types/module/testutil package. This means you can replace your usage of simapp.MakeTestEncodingConfig in tests to moduletestutil.MakeTestEncodingConfig, which takes a series of relevant AppModuleBasic as input (the module being tested and any potential dependencies).


ExportAppStateAndValidators takes an extra argument, modulesToExport, which is a list of module names to export. That argument should be passed to the module maanager ExportGenesisFromModules method.


The GoLevelDB version must pinned to v1.0.1-0.20210819022825-2ae1ddf74ef7 in the application, following versions might cause unexpected behavior. This can be done adding replace => v1.0.1-0.20210819022825-2ae1ddf74ef7 to the go.mod file.


The SDK has migrated from gogo/protobuf (which is currently unmaintained), to our own maintained fork, cosmos/gogoproto.

This means you should replace all imports of to This allows you to remove the replace directive replace => v1.3.3-alpha.regen.1 from your go.mod file.

Please use the image (version >= 0.11.5) for generating protobuf files.

See which buf commit for cosmos/cosmos-sdk to pin in your buf.yaml file here.

Gogoproto Import Paths

The SDK made a patch fix on its gogoproto repository to require that each proto file's package name matches its OS import path (relatively to a protobuf root import path, usually the root proto/ folder, set by the protoc -I flag).

For example, assuming you put all your proto files in subfolders inside your root proto/ folder, then a proto file with package name myapp.mymodule.v1 should be found in the proto/myapp/mymodule/v1/ folder. If it is in another folder, the proto generation command will throw an error.

If you are using a custom folder structure for your proto files, please reorganize them so that their OS path matches their proto package name.

This is to allow the proto FileDescriptSets to be correctly registered, and this standardized OS import paths allows Hubl to reflectively talk to any chain.

{accepts,implements}_interface proto annotations

The SDK is normalizing the strings inside the Protobuf accepts_interface and implements_interface annotations. We require them to be fully-scoped names. They will soon be used by code generators like Pulsar and Telescope to match which messages can or cannot be packed inside Anys.

Here are the following replacements that you need to perform on your proto files:

- "Content"
+ ""
- "Authorization"
+ "cosmos.authz.v1beta1.Authorization"
- "sdk.Msg"
+ "cosmos.base.v1beta1.Msg"
- "AccountI"
+ "cosmos.auth.v1beta1.AccountI"
- "ModuleAccountI"
+ "cosmos.auth.v1beta1.ModuleAccountI"
- "FeeAllowanceI"
+ "cosmos.feegrant.v1beta1.FeeAllowanceI"

Please also check that in your own app's proto files that there are no single-word names for those two proto annotations. If so, then replace them with fully-qualified names, even though those names don't actually resolve to an actual protobuf entity.

For more information, see the encoding guide.


Broadcast Mode

Broadcast mode block was deprecated and has been removed. Please use sync mode instead. When upgrading your tests from block to sync and checking for a transaction code, you need to query the transaction first (with its hash) to get the correct code.



EventTypeMessage events, with sdk.AttributeKeyModule and sdk.AttributeKeySender are now emitted directly at message excecution (in baseapp). This means that the following boilerplate should be removed from all your custom modules:

sdk.NewAttribute(sdk.AttributeKeyModule, types.AttributeValueCategory),
sdk.NewAttribute(sdk.AttributeKeySender, `signer/sender`),

The module name is assumed by baseapp to be the second element of the message route: "" -> "bank". In case a module does not follow the standard message path, (e.g. IBC), it is advised to keep emitting the module name event. Baseapp only emits that event if the module has not already done so.


The params module was deprecated since v0.46. The Cosmos SDK has migrated away from x/params for its own modules. Cosmos SDK modules now store their parameters directly in its repective modules. The params module will be removed in v0.48, as mentioned in v0.46 release. It is strongly encouraged to migrate away from x/params before v0.48.

When performing a chain migration, the params table must be initizalied manually. This was done in the modules keepers in previous versions. Have a look at simapp.RegisterUpgradeHandlers() for an example.


Minimum Proposal Deposit At Time of Submission

The gov module has been updated to support a minimum proposal deposit at submission time. It is determined by a new parameter called MinInitialDepositRatio. When multiplied by the existing MinDeposit parameter, it produces the necessary proportion of coins needed at the proposal submission time. The motivation for this change is to prevent proposal spamming.

By default, the new MinInitialDepositRatio parameter is set to zero during migration. The value of zero signifies that this feature is disabled. If chains wish to utilize the minimum proposal deposits at time of submission, the migration logic needs to be modified to set the new parameter to the desired value.

New Proposal.Proposer field

The Proposal proto has been updated with proposer field. For proposal state migraton developers can call v4.AddProposerAddressToProposal in their upgrade handler to update all existing proposal and make them compatible and this migration is optional.

import (
sdk ""
v4 ""
upgradetypes ""

func (app SimApp) RegisterUpgradeHandlers() {
func(ctx sdk.Context, plan upgradetypes.Plan, fromVM module.VersionMap) (module.VersionMap, error) {
// this migration is optional
// add proposal ids with proposers which are active (deposit or voting period)
proposals := make(map[uint64]string)
proposals[1] = "cosmos1luyncewxk4lm24k6gqy8y5dxkj0klr4tu0lmnj" ...
v4.AddProposerAddressToProposal(ctx, sdk.NewKVStoreKey(v4.ModuleName), app.appCodec, proposals)
return app.ModuleManager.RunMigrations(ctx, app.Configurator(), fromVM)


Introducing a new x/consensus module to handle managing Tendermint consensus parameters. For migration it is required to call a specific migration to migrate existing parameters from the deprecated x/params to x/consensus module. App developers should ensure to call baseapp.MigrateParams in their upgrade handler.


func (app SimApp) RegisterUpgradeHandlers() {
----> baseAppLegacySS := app.ParamsKeeper.Subspace(baseapp.Paramspace).WithKeyTable(paramstypes.ConsensusParamsKeyTable()) <----

func(ctx sdk.Context, _ upgradetypes.Plan, fromVM module.VersionMap) (module.VersionMap, error) {
// Migrate Tendermint consensus parameters from x/params module to a
// dedicated x/consensus module.
----> baseapp.MigrateParams(ctx, baseAppLegacySS, &app.ConsensusParamsKeeper) <----

// ...

return app.ModuleManager.RunMigrations(ctx, app.Configurator(), fromVM)

// ...

The old params module is required to still be imported in your app.go in order to handle this migration.

app.go changes

When using an app.go without App Wiring, the following changes are required:

- bApp.SetParamStore(app.ParamsKeeper.Subspace(baseapp.Paramspace).WithKeyTable(paramstypes.ConsensusParamsKeyTable()))
+ app.ConsensusParamsKeeper = consensusparamkeeper.NewKeeper(appCodec, keys[consensusparamstypes.StoreKey], authtypes.NewModuleAddress(govtypes.ModuleName).String())
+ bApp.SetParamStore(&app.ConsensusParamsKeeper)

When using App Wiring, the paramater store is automatically set for you.


The SDK does not validate anymore the classID and nftID of an NFT, for extra flexibility in your NFT implementation. This means chain developers need to validate the classID and nftID of an NFT.


Ledger support has been generalized to enable use of different apps and keytypes that use secp256k1. The Ledger interface remains the same, but it can now be provided through the Keyring Options, allowing higher-level chains to connect to different Ledger apps or use custom implementations. In addition, higher-level chains can provide custom key implementations around the Ledger public key, to enable greater flexibility with address generation and signing.

This is not a breaking change, as all values will default to use the standard Cosmos app implementation unless specified otherwise.


Go API Changes

The replace directive can be removed from the go.mod, it is no more required to block the version.

A few packages that were deprecated in the previous version are now removed.

For instance, the REST API, deprecated in v0.45, is now removed. If you have not migrated yet, please follow the instructions.

To improve clarity of the API, some renaming and improvements has been done:

simappFundAccount, FundModuleAccountFunctions moved to x/bank/testutil
x/authMempoolFeeDecoratorUse DeductFeeDecorator instead
x/{mod}package legacypackage migrations

For the exhaustive list of API renaming, please refer to the CHANGELOG.

new packages

Additionally, new packages have been introduced in order to further split the codebase. Aliases are available for a new API breaking migration, but it is encouraged to migrate to this new packages:

  • errors should replace types/errors when registering errors or wrapping SDK errors.
  • math contains the Int or Uint types that are used in the SDK.
  • x/nft an NFT base module.
  • x/group a group module allowing to create DAOs, multisig and policies. Greatly composes with x/authz.


  • authz.NewMsgGrant expiration is now a pointer. When nil is used, then no expiration will be set (grant won't expire).
  • authz.NewGrant takes a new argument: block time, to correctly validate expire time.


The keyring has been refactored in v0.46.

  • The Unsafe* interfaces have been removed from the keyring package. Please use interface casting if you wish to access those unsafe functions.
  • The keys' implementation has been refactored to be serialized as proto.
  • keyring.NewInMemory and keyring.New takes now a codec.Codec.
  • Take keyring.Record instead of Info as first argument in:
      * `MkConsKeyOutput`
    * `MkValKeyOutput`
    * `MkAccKeyOutput`
  • Rename:
      * `SavePubKey` to `SaveOfflineKey` and remove the `algo` argument.
    * `NewMultiInfo`, `NewLedgerInfo` to `NewLegacyMultiInfo`, `newLegacyLedgerInfo` respectively.
    * `NewOfflineInfo` to `newLegacyOfflineInfo` and move it to `migration_test.go`.


A postHandler is like an antehandler, but is run after the runMsgs execution. It is in the same store branch that runMsgs, meaning that both runMsgs and postHandler. This allows to run a custom logic after the execution of the messages.


v0.19.0 IAVL introduces a new "fast" index. This index represents the latest state of the IAVL laid out in a format that preserves data locality by key. As a result, it allows for faster queries and iterations since data can now be read in lexicographical order that is frequent for Cosmos-SDK chains.

The first time the chain is started after the upgrade, the aforementioned index is created. The creation process might take time and depends on the size of the latest state of the chain. For example, Osmosis takes around 15 minutes to rebuild the index.

While the index is being created, node operators can observe the following in the logs: "Upgrading IAVL storage for faster queries + execution on the live state. This may take a while". The store key is appended to the message. The message is printed for every module that has a non-transient store. As a result, it gives a good indication of the progress of the upgrade.

There is also downgrade and re-upgrade protection. If a node operator chooses to downgrade to IAVL pre-fast index, and then upgrade again, the index is rebuilt from scratch. This implementation detail should not be relevant in most cases. It was added as a safeguard against operator mistakes.



  • The x/params module has been depreacted in favour of each module housing and providing way to modify their parameters. Each module that has parameters that are changable during runtime have an authority, the authority can be a module or user account. The Cosmos SDK team recommends migrating modules away from using the param module. An example of how this could look like can be found here.
  • The Param module will be maintained until April 18, 2023. At this point the module will reach end of life and be removed from the Cosmos SDK.


The gov module has been greatly improved. The previous API has been moved to v1beta1 while the new implementation is called v1.

In order to submit a proposal with submit-proposal you now need to pass a proposal.json file. You can still use the old way by using submit-legacy-proposal. This is not recommended. More information can be found in the gov module client documentation.


The staking module added a new message type to cancel unbonding delegations. Users that have unbonded by accident or wish to cancel a undelegation can now specify the amount and valdiator they would like to cancel the unbond from


The third_party/proto folder that existed in previous version now does not contains directly the proto files.

Instead, the SDK uses buf. Clients should have their own buf.yaml with as dependency, in order to avoid having to copy paste these files.

The protos can as well be downloaded using buf export --output <some_folder>.

Cosmos message protobufs should be extended with cosmos.msg.v1.signer:

message MsgSetWithdrawAddress {
option (cosmos.msg.v1.signer) = "delegator_address"; ++

option (gogoproto.equal) = false;
option (gogoproto.goproto_getters) = false;

string delegator_address = 1 [(cosmos_proto.scalar) = "cosmos.AddressString"];
string withdraw_address = 2 [(cosmos_proto.scalar) = "cosmos.AddressString"];

When clients interract with a node they are required to set a codec in in the grpc.Dial. More information can be found in this doc.